Heat oil over medium heat, add shallots and garlic, and sauté until lightly colored, about 5 minutes. Add bread crumbs and toast for 2 minutes, stirring constantly.
Add broth, wine, salt, pepper, and thyme. Turn up heat and let boil for about 7 minutes, until the sauce has thickened slightly and reduced by half.
Add chickpeas and capers and cook another 3 minutes, until heated through. Stir in brine and lemon juice and remove from heat.
Arrange arugula in bowls, top with pasta or mashed potatoes, then cover with chickpeas and broth.